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Courtois once added excessive sulfuric acid and a cloud of purple vapour rose.
He noted that the vapour crystallised on cold surfaces, making dark crystals.
To isolate the sodium carbonate, seaweed was burned and the ash washed with water.
The remaining waste was destroyed by adding sulfuric acid.
The melting and boiling points of iodine are the highest among the halogens, conforming to the increasing trend down the group, since iodine has the largest electron cloud among them that is the most easily polarised, resulting in its molecules having the strongest van der Waals interactions among the halogens.
Similarly, iodine is the least volatile of the halogens.
The interhalogen bond in diiodine is the weakest of all the halogens.
He also gave some of the substance to chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778–1850), and to physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836).Similarly, the iodide anion, I The halogens darken in colour as the group is descended: fluorine is a very pale yellow gas, chlorine is greenish-yellow, and bromine is a reddish-brown volatile liquid.Iodine conforms to the prevailing trend, being a shiny black crystalline solid that melts at 114 °C and boils at 183 °C to form a violet gas.It is even less abundant than the so-called rare earths. Iodine is essential in the synthesis of thyroid hormones.Iodine deficiency affects about two billion people and is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disabilities.